R-1

24-bit WAVE/MP3 Recorder

Q.How do I set the optimal recording level on the R-1?

A.The R-1 is designed to record a broad dynamic range of sounds, but you will be able to get the best audio quality if you optimally adjust the recording level for the sound you're recording. The following explanation describes the best way to set the recording level.

The basic principle is to set the input level as high as possible without causing the sound distortion. This applies whether you are using the internal mics or external mics.

Level settings for conventional recording

If you're recording someone singing or speaking, you should normally point the mic toward the person you're recording. The sound will be brighter and clearer if the mic is closer (1 or 2 meters), but if you also want to record theresonating sound in the room, you can place the mic farther away (3 to 5 meters).

Press the [REC] button to make it blink. The R-1 will be in record-ready mode. In this state, recording has not yet begun. Press [DISPLAY] once to switch the display to the level meter indication.



The level meter will move according to the loudness of the sound that's been recorded ontoin the R-1. As the sound get louder, the level meter grows longer to the right. Adjust the input level knob (located on the left panel) so that this level meter grows to the longest width. This means you’ll get the highest possible recording level even if the actual sound source remains at the same loudness.



If the level meter reaches the right edge of the display, this indicates that you are "clipping." Clipping refers to a point at which the R-1 can no long record any louder. As a result, the incoming sound will be recorded at the maximum input level of the R-1. This can cause the recorded signal to playback distorted. You'll notice that if the level meter reaches the right edge of the display. This indicates that the recording level has reached the R-1’s maximum recording level. This is called "clipping." During clipping, any louder incoming sound will simply be recorded at the same level; i.e., it will be recorded in a "clipped" state that does not correspond to the actual level. You'll get a distortion sound when this position in the recorded file is played back.



This means that you should adjust the input level knob so that the level meter does not reach all the way to the right edge (i.e., so that clipping does not occur) when the source you're recording reaches its loudest volume. If you're recording a singer, adjust the input level so that clipping does not occur at the loudest point of the song. If you're recording an instrument, make sure that clipping does not occur during fortissimo passages.

When you've finished setting the level, press the [REC] button once again to begin recording. Even during recording, you can press the [DISPLAY] button several times to switch the display to the level meter indication.


Recording a band performance

If you're recording a high-volume band performance in a small and confined space such as a small recording studio, the sound of the bass guitar or bass drum may be distorted in the recording even if you adjust the recording level as described above. In such cases, reducing the input level or the volume may not solve the problem of distortion.



This is because the level of the original sound is too loud, it has already distorted before being adjusted by the input level knob. In this case, move the R-1 or your external mic further away from the source you're recording.

When recording a band performance indoors, it is risky to be immediately in front of the bass amp or bass drum (i.e., less than one meter away). You should be at least three meters away. Also, you should place the R-1 on something soft that will insulate it from vibration since the R-1’s body may vibrate in response to loud sound, generating spurious sound that could be unexpectedly recorded.

If you're using the internal mics of the R-1, the maximum input level will be 105 dB.


By placing the R-1 or your external mic in the ideal location and adjusting the level appropriately, you can enjoy the R-1's best recording quality.

(2005/06/22)

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